Quebec, Siege of, 1759


Quebec, Siege of, 1759
   Following the capture of Louisbourg, Duquesne, and Fort Frontenac, in the campaign of 1758, two expeditions were sent the following year against Quebec, one by land under Amherst, the second by water under Wolfe and Saunders. The French forces were commanded by Montcalm, whose plans were hampered at every stage by the interference of the governor, Vaudreuil. Wolfe commanded the attacking army, and Saunders the fleet. The former had as brigadiers Townshend, Monckton, and Murray. Montcalm had a force of over fourteen thousand men, partly regulars and partly militia. Wolfe's army numbered less than nine thousand men, but all were regulars. After bombarding the city from the Lévis shore, Wolfe, on July 31, made an unsuccessful attack at Montmorency. Several ineffective efforts followed, and it was not until early in September that Wolfe matured the plans which led to ultimate success. Landing his men at a cove two miles above the city, on the night of the twelfth, he had three thousand men upon the heights of Abraham before daybreak. Montcalm hastily assembled his troops and led them to the attack, but was completely defeated. During the battle, both Wolfe and Montcalm were mortally wounded, and five of the French brigadiers fell upon the field. The French were pursued to the gates of the city, and Townshend, who had succeeded to the command, had difficulty in re-forming his troops to repel an attack from the rear by Bougainville. The latter, however, after a brief engagement, was forced to retire; and the British remained masters of the field. Five days later, the city capitulated to Saunders and Townshend.
   Index: SeeQuebec City; Wolfe; Montcalm.
   Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Woods, Logs of the Conquest of Canada and Fight for Canada; Bradley, The Fight with France; Knox, Historical Journal; Waddington, La Guerre de Sept Ans.

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